ÖĞRETMEN ADAYLARININ YANSITICI DÜŞÜNME BECERİLERİNDEKİ GELİŞİMİN ÖĞRETİM SÜRECİNİN DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ BOYUTUNDA İNCELENMESİ
Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, öğretmen adaylarına yansıtıcı düşünmeyi öğretip geliştirmelerine yardımcı olurken, yansıtıcı düşünmenin öğretim sürecinin değerlendirmesi boyunca gelişimini ortaya koymaktır. Bu araştırma, incelenen durumun özeliğinden dolayı eylem araştırması biçiminde desenlenmiştir. Araştırmanın katılımcıları, Bayburt Üniversitesi Bayburt Eğitim Fakültesi İlköğretim Bölümü Fen Bilgisi Öğretmenliği Anabilim Dalın' da öğrenim gören 32 öğretmen adayıdır. Bu araştırmada veri toplama araçları olarak video kayıtları, yarı yapılandırılmış mülakat, öz değerlendirme formu ve yansıtıcı günlükler kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada elde edilen nitel veriler, içerik analizi kullanılarak çözümlenmiştir. Elde edilen veriler, öğretmen adaylarının öğretim sürecinin değerlendirmesine yönelik yansıtıcı düşünme becerilerinde gelişim olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. Bununla birlikte, yansıtıcı düşünme çalışmalarının, bu çalışmalara katılan öğretmen adaylarının bir dersin değerlendirmesine yönelik mesleki gelişimleri konusunda katkı sağladığı görülmüştür. Öğretmen adaylarının, yansıtıcı düşünmeyi geliştirmeye yönelik yapılan çalışma sürecinin başlangıcında teknik alanda yansıtma seviyesine sahip oldukları, sürecin ilerleyen aşamalarında uygulama ve eleştirel alanda da yansıtma yapabildikleri ortaya konulmuştur. Bu bağlamda, öğretmen adaylarının öğretim sürecinin değerlendirmesi aşamasında yaşadıkları deneyimler ve bu deneyimler üzerine yaptıkları yansıtmalarla bir dersin değerlendirmesine yönelik mesleki gelişim sağladıkları sonucuna ulaşılmıştırThe main purpose of this study is to demonstrate the development of reflective thinking during the evaluation of the teaching process, while helping pre-service teachers teach and develop reflective thinking. This research has been designed in the form of an action research because of the nature of the situation studied. Participants of the study were 32 preservice teachers who were educated in Bayburt University Bayburt Faculty of Education Department of Elementary Science Science Teacher Education. In this research, video recordings, semi-structured interview, self-evaluation form and reflective diaries were used as data collection tools. Qualitative data obtained in the research were analyzed using content analysis. The data obtained show that the development of reflective thinking skills for evaluating the teaching process of pre-service teachers. However, it has been seen that reflective thinking studies have contributed to the professional development of pre-service teachers participating in these studies to evaluate a course. Pre-service teachers have been shown to have a level of reflection on the technical field at the beginning of the work process to improve reflective thinking and to apply it in the progressive stages and to reflect critically on the field. In this context, pre-service teachers have reached the conclusion that they have achieved professional development in evaluating a lesson in the course of evaluating the teaching processThe science curriculum, which is based on a research-based learning approach, emphasizes that students are responsible for their own learning, their active involvement in the learning process, and their ability to construct knowledge in their own minds (MEB, 2013). The inquiry-based learning approach, which forms the basis of the science curriculum, is also emphasized in the pedagogical lessons of pre-service science teachers in the four-year curriculum. The content of the course should be designed so that the pre-service science teachers' practices in future teaching lives can be made according to this approach. In this context, the development of reflective thinking skills is important in preservice teachers. Because reflection is the process by which problemsolving and interrogation skills are used to make meaningful connections between different experiences and ideas (Rodgers, 2002). In this research, it was aimed to develop reflective thinking skills of pre-service teachers with reflective thinking exercises using micro teaching, reflective writing, self-evaluation and semi-structured interviews, and to elucidate this process in detail. In this way, the effectiveness of the applications made to improve reflective thinking in the pre-service teachers and the positive and negative situations in the implementation process will be determined and as a result, a teaching model that can be applied for educating reflective pre-service teachers can be proposed. In this research, it is aimed to investigate the effects of reflective thinking studies which give pre-service science teachers many positive teaching features such as versatile and free thinking, flexibility, self-confidence, open-mindedness, responsibility and sincerity as well as reflective thinking skills and teaching in professional applications of preservice science teachers. It is desirable to reach the experiences that will enable them to develop their skills. This study was carried out within the framework of 'Special Teaching Methods I' course offered in Spring Semester 2013-2014 and 'Special Teaching Methods II and School Experience' courses offered in fall semester 2014-2015 in Bayburt University Faculty of Education's Department of Elementary Science Teacher Education. It is aimed to put forward the development of reflective thinking in the evaluation stage of the teaching process of pre-service teachers while helping the pre-service teachers to develop reflective thinking skills and to develop these skills. Method This research was conducted in order to teach pre-service teachers about reflective thinking and to help them to develop and to demonstrate the development of reflective thinking in the course of evaluating the teaching process. The action research is described in many different forms in the literature. The action research is a systematic research process conducted by teachers who are researchers at the same time in the teaching environment to learn how their students learn better, how they teach, and how their schools function (Mills, 2003). Action research is a process that starts with a problem, needs to be well planned before the data is collected, and requires regular observation and flexibility in the collection, analysis and reporting of data (Ay, 2010; Kuzu, 2005; Miller, 2007). Data Analysis The main data sources of the research are interviews, reflective logs and documents obtained from self assessment. After the completion of the spelling phase, the researcher listened to the records over and over again and made the necessary corrections so that there would not be any glance or skipping in transcribing the records. The recorded data were shown to the pre-service teachers after they were written and they were confirmed to them. The records, however, were also compared with the notes kept by the researcher during observation and necessary attachments were made to the written documents. Findings It was determined that when the findings obtained from the analysis of the data collected by reflective daily, self-evaluation and semistructured interviews for the planning of the lesson about the first applications of the pre-service teachers were mostly reflected in technical field reflection points about the achievements, subject sequence, goals, preparation process and goals. When the data from the reflective journal, self-assessment and interviews on the second applications are analyzed, it is revealed that there is a reflection level on the candidate applicants' application areas mainly about the evaluation methods. Analysis of the data obtained from the reflective daily, self-evaluation and interviews about the third applications for the evaluation of the pre-service teachers, it has been found that the pre-service teachers mostly have critical level of reflection on the evaluation methods. It has been determined that when pre-service teachers analyze the data obtained from the reflective daily, self evaluation and interviews about the practices of the lesson in the real classroom environment, the pre-service teachers mostly have a critical level of reflection on the teaching approaches, teaching materials and teaching methods. Pre-service teachers often seem to have a level of reflection in the first application, visualization of the techniques, second application, application level, and third and fourth applications. At the end of his / her application, the value forms used in the evaluation of the course are generally related to the achievements, duration, student behaviors, alternative ready methods made in individual and group, in the reflective diaries, self-evaluations and interviews of pre-service teachers. It is seen that the explanations of the point-to-point structures that the pre-service teachers have associated with the methods in the most recent practical correct evaluations are detailed. The first application conditions largely mirrored the technical field, and teacher candidates used simple expressions while evaluating methods used to indicate relationships with different variables. Expressing and evaluating students' thoughts by considering the methods. In the second application, the evaluation methods of the pre-service teachers express the relations with the different variables, while explaining the underlying reasons of the relations. While the methods used in the evaluation of the third and fourth applications refer to the relation to the different variables, the related points are investigated systematically. Duplication of the third and fourth applicants of the pre-service teachers, examination of the results of the teacher candidates' results obtained from both the account and the applications of their prospective teachers. Result and Discussion Regular reflective diary, which is the practice of developing reflective thinking skills has been influential in the development of reflective thinking. Micro-teaching and self-assessment also contributed to the development of reflective thinking skills in pre-service teachers. It has been achieved that the constructive and harmonious feedback and criticism environments between the teaching staff and the pre-service teachers and the mutual effective communication have positive effects on reflective thinking. Besides, science has been effective in determining reflective daily and self-evaluations of pre-service teachers, the negativity, deficiencies and problem situations they have experienced in evaluating the course. In this study, attempts were made to develop the reflective thinking skills of pre-service science teachers with applications aimed at developing reflective thinking. Conducting a research on how to transfer the reflective thinking skills of pre-service science teachers participating in reflective thinking development to their own students when they are teachers in the future and how their application will influence students' reflective thinking development will provide information on the effectiveness of reflective thinking studies and the reflections of students.
SourceTurkish Studies (Elektronik)