Delocalization and charge transfer studies of PERMENDUR49, KOVAR and Ti50Co50 alloys from relative K X-ray intensity ratios
K?-to-K? X-ray intensity ratios of Fe, Ni, Co, Ti, V in pure form and PERMENDUR49 (Fe49Co49V2), KOVAR (Fe54Ni29Co17) and Ti50Co50 alloys were calculated in order to determine valence-electron structure of the samples. The obtained experimental K?-to-K? X-ray intensity ratios were found to be 0.1252 ± 0.0025, 0.1256 ± 0.0027, 0.1298 ± 0.0026, 0.1327 ± 0.0028, 0.1346 ± 0.0027 for pure Ti, V, Fe, Co and Ni, respectively. These values of present pure metals have increased with the increment in atomic number of these pure metals. Also, although the obtained these values for metal atoms in PERMENDUR49, Ti50Co50 and for Fe, Ni metal atoms in KOVAR approximately compatible with respect to results same pure metals, the obtained experimental K?-to-K? X-ray intensity ratios for Co in KOVAR are significantly different from the appropriate values for pure Co metal. Then, the valence-electron populations of these alloys were calculated in order to answer as to why the characteristic properties of the studied alloys are distinct from each other. The valence-electron structures of these metals in pure form and alloys were determined by comparison of the calculated K?-to-K? X-ray intensity ratios with the results of multi-configurations Dirac-Fock (MCDF) calculations to understand the charge-transfer and/or delocalization phenomena of these alloys. The experimental n3d values were found to be 3.2694, 4.7905, 7.7941, 7.9618, 8.500 for pure Ti, V, Fe, Co and Ni, respectively. The calculated 3d and 4s, 4p electron population values for Ti, V and Co in pure form have shown very little deviation from the appropriate values of Ti in Ti50Co50 and Co, V in PERMENDUR49. Also, the deviation for these values is greater for Fe, Ni, in KOVAR, Co in Ti50Co50, Fe in PERMENDUR49 with respect to the corresponding values of pure metals and the largest deviation for these values is observed for Co metal atoms in KOVAR alloy. We have also calculated the weighted average numbers of 3d and 4s, 4p electrons per one atom as well as the superposition of 3d and 4s, 4p electrons, as obtained from pure metal values. While the obtained superposition 3d electron numbers of present alloys exhibit a decreasing tendency as S3d(Ti50Co50) < S3d(PERMENDUR49) < S3d(KOVAR), the obtained weighted average 3d electron numbers of present alloys has opposite tendency (A3d(KOVAR) < A3d(PERMENDUR49) < A3d(Ti50Co50)). The analysis show that valance-electron population of elements in these alloys indicated differences with respect to the pure metal and each other. These differences can be related to type of alloy elements, concentration of alloy elements, charge transfer and/or delocalization phenomena between of individual metal atoms in alloys. Also, the obtained results show that there are alloying effect on valence-electron population due to charge transfer and/or delocalization phenomena. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
SourceJournal of Alloys and Compounds
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